top of page

Articles and Studies 

Effect of Caging System and Bedding Sterilization on Intra cage Ammonia Accumulation With Time

by John A. Maher, Juan P. Rodriguez and Scott A. Mischler

A study conducted by Pfizer Comparative Medicine and Charles River Laboratories sought to: a) Compare the ammonia removal efficiency of two ventilated cage systems in which the air injection and exhaust ports were either horizontal (CH) or vertical (CV), and b) Determine if using autoclaved bedding resulted in different intra cage ammonia concentrations than using non-autoclaved bedding.

Excerpt: "Intra-cage ammonia values were larger (P<0.01) for the CH than for the CV cages. All other things being equal, the moister, more nutrient rich environment in the CH cages may have favored a larger bacterial population, enhanced bacterial activity and thus greater NH3 levels."

SOURCE: Poster, AALAS National Meeting, Nov 2015.                         

                                                                                                              Download PDF 

Ammonia Levels and Cage Change Frequency for Mice Housed on 3 Different Types of Ventilated Racks

by Mary Rainey, Ollie Dalisay, Eleanor Gonsalves, Evelyn Jaime, Roberto Leal, Rafael Soares, and Jerik Toloza

A study conducted by Bristol-Myers Squibb measured the ammonia buildup at 14 days between three different caging solutions.

Excerpt: "Dividing this ppm/hr exposure by the 24 hours the monitor was in the cage, the mice exposure to ammonia is less than 1 ppm/hour. We used the human OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry of 50 ppm/hr (8 hr TWA) as a reference... We are well below these reference points at the 14-day cage change timeframe."                                                                   

                                                                                                               Download PDF 

Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

by Jason M Koontz, David M Kumsher, Richard Kelly III, and Jonathan D Stallings

A study conducted by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases uses adult Sprague-Dawley rats housed in the Innovive Disposable IVC Caging System. The study "sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium."

Excerpt: "The 2-wk cage-change interval will not only markedly reduce labor time and material costs, especially when using disposable cages in an IVC system, but it will also allow studies that require prolonged exposures, treatments, or observations without disturbing the animals."


SOURCE: "Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages", by Jason M Koontz, David M Kumsher, Richard Kelly III, and Jonathan D Stallings. Published in JAALAS Vol 55, Jan 2016. Pages 25-28.


                                                                                                              Download PDF 

Recyclable Caging Study Results: Broader Applications & Selection Criteria for Today's Project and Cost Drivers

by Cliff Roberts, DVM, DACLAM

Results from a worldwide study on recyclable caging adoption and performance metrics should inform plans for facility designs, energy use, and operating efficiency. Cliff Roberts examines the use of recyclable caging technology for a variety of programs, facilities types, and census sizes in the University of California system and facilities worldwide.

He sets out selection criteria, and delivers aggregate data on facility square footage, quantity of cages, cage density per unit space, actual costs and estimated savings. He illustrates improved process flows, staffing levels, ergonomics, utility consumption, housing protocols, operating costs, biosecurity and waste handling for both new construction projects and renovations.

SOURCE: PowerPoint Presentation, Tradeline Animal Research Facilities Conference, Nov 2013.


                                                                                                             Download PDF 

Maximizing Operational and Research Activities Through the Use of Disposable Caging

by Rebecca Varrall, David Smith and Stephen Baker

Pfizer has selected the disposable cage as the primary Individually Ventilated Caging (IVC) option for a new 52,000ft2 research facility with a 7,500+ rodent housing capacity. This poster describes their experiences using disposable cages.

SOURCE: Poster, IAT Congress, April 2014.


                                                                                                               Download PDF 

Disposable Caging – How It Helped Our Lab Grow

by Dr. Richard Lin

Explora Biolabs needed to scale up their facility rapidly, and this article explains how disposable caging offered financial and operational benefits.

SOURCE: "Disposable Caging – How It Helped Our Lab Grow", by Dr. Richard Lin. Published in Animal Lab News, April 2010.

                                                                                                               Download PDF

Disposable vs. Conventional Caging

by Rudy Cagneron, B.S.

Due to a lack of equipment required to house an incoming arrival of Nu/Nu+ mice inside the animal facility, XOMA (US) LLC conducted a study to analyze and compare the cleanliness of Innovive disposable caging to conventional static caging. The goal was to investigate if a disposable caging system would be a useful alternative compared to a standard caging system.

SOURCE: Poster Presentation, 62nd AALAS, Oct 2012.

                                                                                                             Download PDF 

Benefits of Employing New Technology in Human Genome Sciences Vivarium

by James Bell

The Human Genome Sciences’ new vivarium employed a new animal housing system that uses disposable caging. The new disposable caging system enabled HGS to decrease cost, labor and time, maximize space efficiency while simultaneously providing a safe and healthy environment for research animals and scientists. Vivaria built with disposable caging systems can cost two-thirds less to build compared to the ones with traditional housing systems. HGS’s experience matched this cost savings and also saw that disposable caging reduces per diem cost.


SOURCE: Poster for Oct. 2012

                                                                                                             Download PDF 

Ammonia and CO2 in Innovive Disposable IVC System

by Jerald Silverman

Third-party research indicates that Innovive disposable cages have 15x lower levels of NH3 than traditional caging, and also features a gentle animal environment.

Excerpt: "This study compares reusable and disposable individually ventilated mouse cages in terms of the formation of intracage CO2 and NH3. Nevertheless, over the course of the study, we found significantly higher NH3 concentrations in the reusable IVCs."

SOURCE: "Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Disposable and Reusable Ventilated Mouse Cages", by Jerald Silverman, David W Bays, Sheldon F Copper, and Stephen P Baker. Published in JAALAS Vol 47, March 2008.

                                                                                                             Download PDF 

Innorack® 3.0 Intracage Ammonia (NH3) Concentration Report

This study was performed to evaluate daily intracage ammonia (NH3) levels produced by mice housed in the Innorack3 3.0 IVC system.

Excerpt: "The Innorack® 3.0 ventilation system employs transversal airflow that provides efficient evacuation of moisture and gases from the Innocage®, resulting in a cleaner environment for the mice and more time in between cage change-outs."


                                                                                                             Download PDF 

Evaluation of Disposable Caging System as a Breeding and Husbandry Solution

by Dr. Marek Piechowiak

In September 2007, the animal facility of a Biomedical Research Laboratory needed a significant renovation. Before undertaking any major investment decisions, the company decided to evaluate the Innovive Disposable Rodent Caging System and, specifically, its ability to support the company's animal breeding program.

SOURCE: "Evaluation of Disposable Caging System as a Breeding and Husbandry Solution", as presented at the 2008 AALAS National Meeting.


                                                                                                           Download PDF

Investigation of Appropriate Sanitization Frequency for Rodent Caging Accessories: Evidence Supporting Less-Frequent Cleaning

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that sanitization of caging accessories (for example, filter tops and wire-bar lids) should be done every 2 weeks. This study examines how frequent a cage change should ideally occur.


SOURCE: "Investigation of Appropriate Sanitization Frequency for Rodent Caging Accessories: Evidence Supporting Less-frequent Cleaning", by Curtis W Schondelmeyer, Dirck L Dillehay, Sonji K Webb, Michael J Huerkamp, Deborah M Mook, and Jennifer K Pullium. Published in JAALAS Vol 45, No 6, Nov 2008.


                                                                                                            Download PDF

Impact of Various IVC Housing Systems on Mouse Phenotyping Studies

by Marie-France Champy, Isabelle Goncalves Da Cruz, Elodie Bedu, Roy Combe, Benoit Petit-Demoulière, Stéphanie Muller, Abdelkader Ayadi, Yann Herault, & Hamid Meziane

Consistent phenotyping data within and across labs require standardization of protocols but also of housing conditions, which is well known to influence mouse phenotype characteristics such as behavior. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of 3 different IVC systems on mouse phenotypes.

SOURCE: Poster Presentation, 62nd AALAS, Oct 2012.


                                                                                                            Download PDF

New Study Confirms Recycling Plastic Significantly Reduces Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

by American Chemistry Council (ACC)


Press release excerpt: "Based on the LCI study results and data from U.S. EPA, the generation of cleaned recycled resin required 71 trillion Btu less than the amount of energy that would be required to produce the equivalent tonnage of virgin PET and HDPE resin. The corresponding savings in greenhouse gas emissions was 2.1 million tons of CO2 equivalents, an amount comparable to taking 360,000 cars off the road."


SOURCE: "New Study Confirms Recycling Plastic Significantly reduces energy use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions" - press-release (April 28, 2010)


                                                                                                            Download PDF

Evaluating a New Environmental Enrichment Option For Mice

by Danielle Bornstein-Elbirt DVM MS DACLAM, Lauren Kelley BS RLATG, Jessica Cabral BS RLATG, Stephen Baker MS CMAR

Comparative Medicine evaluated Innorichment™ to assess the quality of nests in comparison to other paper products already in use in the facility. In addition, CM wanted to determine if any efficiency could be achieved by using a pre-bedded, pre-enriched cage compared to having to manually add the enrichment at the time of cage change. Using a scoring system published by Hess et al, it was determined that mice enriched with Innorichment™ built nests with an median score of 3.75 and on average it took technicians 3 seconds less per cage using this type of enrichment.


SOURCE: "Evaluating a New Environmental Enrichment Option For Mice", by Danielle Bornstein-Elbirt, Lauren Kelley, Jessica Cabral, Stephen Baker. Published in 2015.


                                                                                                            Download PDF

Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Mice with the Addition of Cage Dividers

by Bret R. Tallent, Latg, and Jonathan Lifshitz, PhD.

Antagonistic behavior in group-housed rodents is a reoccurring issue that can not only affect the welfare of the animals but also impact the validity of research results. Find out how a team of researchers were able to reduce aggressive behavior in male mice by upwards of 65% by using custom built cage dividers.

Excerpt: "Mice reared in a complex cage system that emulates a burrow-like environment will lead to healthier, less reactive mice. Few publications evaluate the effects of cage dividers or complex caging in mic. Of those that do, the modifications include a much larger cage, or caging system, that varied in the complexity of customization to cages. No simple, cost effective home-cage interventions are available to reduce aggression and maintain animal welfare. Therefore, we conducted an observational study of group-house mice within standard disposable individually ventilated mouse cages with the addition of custom built dividers."

SOURCE: "Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Mice with the Addition of Cage Dividers", by Bret R. Tallent, Latg, and Jonathan Lifshitz, PhD. Presented at 2017 AALAS National Meeting in Charlotte, NC.


                                                                                                            Download PDF

Netherlands Cancer Institute Case Study

by Marco Breuer, Head Lab of Animal Facilities

The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) was established in 1913 and is the only dedicated cancer center in The Netherlands combining a nationwide Cancer Clinic and Cancer Research Institute.


For nearly a decade NKI faced issues with outdated equipment and procedure rooms in an animal facility that was over 30 years old. It was because of these issues NKI set out to build a new stand-alone animal facility intended to facilitate their research questions, as well as fulfill their need for a high microbiological standard.


Read how NKI noticed a considerable difference between disposable and washable cages after implementing the Innovive IVC system and 22,000 disposable cages. From a qualitative perspective they could actually see the results, which was very important for their high-end research.


                                                                                                           Download PDF

The Charles River Accelerator and Development Lab (CRADL™) Case Study


The Charles River Accelerator and Development Lab (CRADL™) is a new animal housing and research support option from Charles River that provides turnkey vivarium rental space and technical support in highly populated research-focused regions. CRADL™ is the optimum space for clients to launch or expand their business with the added benefit of access to Charles River’s complete portfolio of integrated drug discovery resources. Managed by AALAS-certified technicians, rodents receive the best in care within secure, modern and compliant facilities.


Discover how they were able to improve animal & employee welfare, as well as cost & space savings by adopting the Innovive Disposable Caging System.


                                                                                                           Download PDF

The Center for Infectious Disease Research Case Study

by Tim Dawe, LATg, ILAM Vivarium Manager of Center for Infectious Disease Research


In 2012, the Center for Infectious Disease Research (formerly Seattle BioMed) determined that its existing facility operations and research support capacity was limited by lack of space, inadequate cage sanitation capacity as well as insufficient physical infrastructure to support expanding animal use procedures and imaging.


Discover how they were able to increase vivarium cage capacity, reduce FTE needs and reduce utility and caging costs by adopting the Innovive Disposable Caging System.


                                                                                                           Download PDF

AVEO Oncology Case Study

by Sheryl Perry, MS, LAT Former Animal Facility Manager & IACUC Chair of AVEO Oncology


In 2011, the relocation of the AVEO Corporate Headquarters led them to reevaluate their animal housing needs and operations. After examining the total cost of ownership and maintenance, discover how they were able to save over $2 million by switching from washable caging to the Innovive Disposable Caging System.


                                                                                                           Download PDF

bottom of page